Known in short as PDA is considered to be a condition where ductus arteriosus tends to fail closing after birth. The early symptoms are found to be uncommon. However, during the initial year of life, does include poor weight gain and work of breathing. Congestive heart failure may be experienced with increasing age if the PDA is left uncorrected.
What is ductus arteriosus?
It is regarded to be foetal blood vessel which closes immediately after birth. The vessel in PDA is said to remain open and patent, thus resulting in irregular blood transmission between pulmonary artery and aorta. It is also found commonly among new-born babies having persistent respiratory issues like hypoxia. There is also present high occurrence among premature new-borns, who are more likely to become hypoxic, have PDA because of lungs and heart underdevelopment.
Even a portion of oxygenated blood is allowed by PDA from left heart. It flows to the lungs to pulmonary artery through aorta (having higher pressure). In case, the shunt is found to be substantial, then neonate faces shortness of breath. Lung pressure is increased due to additional fluid returning back to the lungs, thus increasing energy that is necessary for lung inflation. More calories than required are used up and infancy feeding is often interfered with. It is a condition similar to constellation of findings has been termed as congestive heart failure. PDA device closure cost in India is quite affordable for every person to avail it.
If few congenital heart defects like transposition of great vessels, the PDA will required to be kept open, since it is in this manner that deoxygenated and oxygenated blood gets mixed. In such cases, the DA is kept open with the use of prostaglandins until heart defect has been surgically corrected.
Symptoms and signs
The common symptoms are as follows:
- Respiratory issues
- Tachycardia (heart rate that exceeds normal resting rate)
- Constant machine like (described as ‘to and fro’ and ‘rolling thunder’), heart murmur (generally to pulmonary artery from aorta, with flow being lower during diastole and higher during systole.
- Dyspnea (breath shortness)
- Left subclavicular thrill
- Cardiomegaly (an enlarged heart that reflects volume overload and ventricular dilation)
- Wide pulse pressure
- Bounding pulse
- Enhanced systolic pressure
- Enhanced cardiac output
- Differential cyanosis, which is cyanosis of lower extremities and not related to the upper body
- Poor growth
Patients are found to be present typically in good health having normal heart rate and respirations. In case, the PDA is found to be large or moderate, bounding peripheral pulses and widened pulse pressure will be frequently present. It reflects enhanced volume of left ventricular stroke and dialostic blood run off within pulmonary vascular bed (initially low resistance). Prominent Carotid and suprasternal pulsations could be noted secondary to enhanced volume of left ventricular stroke.
At times, PDA can be idiopathic. The common risk factors are given below:
- Congenital rubella syndrome
- Preterm birth
- Genetic conditions like Loeys-Dietz syndrome (present among other heart defects), CHAR syndrome and Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome.
- Chromosomal abnormalities (for example down syndrome)
Visiting the best PDA device closure hospital in India is sure to help the patient to recover soon from the ailment.